Educational Statistics – Branches and Roles. **Lesson One Highlights**:

- Definition of statistics
- Branches of statistics
- Statistics as a discipline
- Statistics as a method/measure
- Educational statistics
- Roles of educational statistics

Statistics is the process of gathering, organizing. analyzing and interpreting data thereby giving meaning to the data.

## EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS – BRANCHES AND ROLES

Statistics can be seen as either a discipline or a measure or a method.

**STATISTICS AS A DISCIPLINE**: Statistics as a discipline is a statistics of that field of study that focused on gathering, organizing, analyzing of data and presenting information in order to solve problem. Under statistics as a discipline, there are two types. Pure and applied statistics.

** PURE STATISTICS**: Pure statistics deals with derivation of mathematical formula that can be used to solve day to day problem.

* APPLIED STATISTICS*: Applied statistics deals with the application of the mathematical formula that the pure statistics have derived to solving problems. This is where education falls under.

### STATISTICS AS A METHOD/MEASURE

This can be defined as those values that is gotten or calculated from a given data and it is considered to be the characteristics or attribute of that particular data.

**Note:** The characteristic of a simple is called “statistics” and “parameter” refers to the characteristics of the entire population. Statistics as a measure or method can be grouped into two; descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

* DISCRIPTIVE STATISTICS*: Descriptive statistics focus on describing and summarizing information from a given group or sample. It includes mean, standard deviation, spearman rank and so on.

** INFERENTIAL STATISTICS**: Inferential statistics is concerned with drawing generalization, inference, conclusion using sample statistics to give ride to population parameter. It entails the process of drawing conclusion or generalization on a population parameter using sample statistics.

**TYPES OF INFERENTIAL STATISTICS**

There are two types of inferential statistics; parametric statistics and non – parametric statistics.

** PARAMETRIC STATISTICS**: This is a type of inferential statistics that male use of restrictive assumptions. Restrictive assumptions refer to certain assumptions that must be met before it can be applied. For example, in an institional educational setting, before a teacher can teach or instruct a P.hd student, the teacher must have a P.hd qualification.

Such assumptions include, homogeneity of variance, normality assumption, linearity assumption, the data must be continuous (interval/ratio). Statistical tools used here include; T – Test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Z – Test, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).

** NON – PARAMETRIC STATISTICS**: These are statistics that does not make use of restrictive assumptions. Examples of these non – parametric statistics are kruskal wallis, Cochran, Chi-square, Freidman test, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance and so on.

#### EDUCAITIONAL STATISTICS

Educational statistics deals with the application of statistics to the field of education in gathering, organizing and interpreting information for the purpose of understanding human behavior or phenomenon as well as solving educational problems.

**ROLES OF EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS (IMPORTANCE)**

- Educational statistics help teachers to present or communicate information in a more meaningful way.
- It helps teachers in preferring solution to educational problems.
- It helps teachers to become aware of current trends in the field of education.
- Educational statistics aid in streaming instruction.

**ASSIGNMENT**

- list other 5 statistical tool in Parametric and non – Parametric statistics
- Outline 5 additional roles of educational statistics.