Affective Domain Assessment Instruments.
In education, instruments are tools which comprises set of items which is used in collecting pertinent data about an individual or groups being measured. There are various instruments used in measuring the affective domain. The affective domain is one of the bloom’s classifications of the domain of learning. It is a domain that focuses on learner’s attitude, interest, anxiety, self efficacy and so on.
The affective domain is mainly psychological traits and these traits are measured with the help of affective instruments. Affective instruments that will be discussed in this work includes; observational technique, questionnaire, sociometry, anecdotal, interview, rating scale and checklist.
Observational Technique: This involves paying a particular attention to the behavior of an individual or group in a given setting. It could be participatory and non participatory. It is participatory when the observer infiltrates the group like a spy (undercover mission).
The observed and the observer are engaged in the same activity while the observer collects data about the subject of interest. It is non participatory when the observed and the observer are engaged in different activities and sometimes the observed may not be aware of the where about of the observer. Another affective instrument that will be discussed is the questionnaire.
Questionnaire: This is a data collection tool made up of series of items for the purpose of gathering information from the respondents. It can be a structured or unstructured questionnaire. Structured in the sense that, it has a fixed response that the respondent is supposed to respond to. The respondent is limited to the options provided.
It is unstructured or open ended in the sense that the respondent has the liberty of expressing his or her opinions any way deemed fit. Another affective instrument that will be discussed is the sociometry.
Affective Domain Assessment Instruments
Sociometry: It is an instrument that elicits information concerning other people within the group from respondents who belong to the group. For example, class nomination for class prefect.
Note that Mary, Joy and Andrew are isolates because no one nominated them. Ene and Oche are mutual because there nominated each other. Ene is the star because since majority nominated her as the class prefect. Another affective instrument that will be discussed is the interview.
Interview: this is also a tool used in eliciting information from the respondent. It can be written or face to face interview. It also can be a telephone interview. Interviews are guided by the interview schedule which could be structured or unstructured interview.
In structured interview, one could easily reframe and ask questions whose answer is not satisfactory or out of scope in a case. The structured is a fixed response with little or no flexibility. Interview is the best instrument to elicit information from especially those who cannot read or write. Another affective instrument that will be discussed is the anecdotal.
Anecdotal: This is used to record specific observations of individual student behaviours, skills and attitudes as they relate to the outcomes in the program of studies. Anecdotal records are mainly used to learn about the development or behavior of a child. It can address student participation and effort or can concentrate on the student’s progress toward attaining identified course objectives.
Checklist: This contains a list of behaviors or items, which can be marked as present or absent, available or not available. Checklist is used to determine if an item or attribute exist or not. In some cases, a teacher will use a checklist to observe the students. In other cases, students use checklists to ensure that they have completed all of the steps and considered all of the possibilities.
Checklists help monitor specific skills, behaviors, or dispositions of individual students or all the students in the class. Some teachers use observation checklists for formative assessments by focusing on specific behaviors, thinking, social skills, writing skills, or speaking skills.
Rating Scale: This is a set of attributes, characteristics, or qualities that are rated on a scale to indicate the degree or extent to which each attribute is present. A rating scale is a tool for assessing personality qualities like feelings, attitudes, interests, and preferences.
Some rating scales are employed in psychoanalytical study as well as research studies on motivation, crime, migration, and political preference.
In education, one prominent example of rating scales is in attitude questionnaires, where reactions to assertions about a topic are conveyed using options such as Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (U), Strongly Disagree (SD), and Disagree (D).
The affective domain is mainly psychological traits and these traits are measured with the help of affective instruments such as observational technique, questionnaire, sociometry, anecdotal, interview, rating scale and checklist.